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Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Phytoremediation and Bioremediation

Advancement in science and technologies parallel to industrial revolution has opened new vistas to exploit the inherent traits of natural resources including green plants and microorganisms to overcome the damage to the environment by pollutants. To develop the phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes for arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) from water. Microwave-assisted extraction efficiency is investigated for extraction of arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) from plant materials by comparison of the results by three extractant solutions. The biosorption of arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) from water is studied by living cells of Bacillus cereus biomass as bioremediation. Dependence of biosorption was studied with variation of various parameters to achieve the optimum condition. The biosorption data of both arsenic(III) and chromium(VI) ions collected from laboratory scale experimental set up is used to train a back propagation(BP)learning algorithm having 4-7-1 architecture. The removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from the Eichhornia crassipes root biomass.

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Bioremediation of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by some fungi

Heavy metals pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades because of their toxicity to the environment. Lead pollution is a serious environmental problem in many countries, caused by some industrial activities, and poses a significant threat to the environment and public health. In addition, cobalt may cause health problems in living cells at high levels. The removal of heavy metals from the environment especially wastewater is now shifting from the use of conventional adsorbents to the use of biosorbents in a process known as biosorption.

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Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Using Algae

The present study attempts to understand to what extent biomass application can be useful to treat industrial effluent so as to isolate heavy metals. The researcher has carried out various laboratory experiments to identify suitable methods. The present report is documentable of the work discussion on previous literature, methodology and the relevance. Heavy metals are present in nature and industrial wastewater. Due to their mobility in natural water ecosystems and toxicity, the presence of heavy metals in surface water and ground water has become a major inorganic contamination problem. Discharge and treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals are important issues in environmental protection. Various industries produce and discharge wastes containing different heavy metals into the environment. Biosorption is a property of certain types of microbial biomass to concentrate heavy metals from aqueous solution. This is new research to use of blue green and green algae, which are growing on automobile industrial effluent naturally and we can to use them for removal of the heavy metals.

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Phytoremediation with selected plants in heavy metals polluted soils

The most common heavy metals in the soil environments are Cd, Cu, Pb, and Mn. Metals are natural components in soil. Environmental contamination has resulted from industrial activities such as mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, electroplating, gas exhaust, energy and fuel production, fertilizer and pesticide application, and generation of municipal waste. High levels of metals in soil can be phytotoxic. Poor plant growth and soil cover caused by metal toxicity can lead to metal mobilization in runoff water and subsequent deposition into nearby bodies of water. Uptake of pollutants by plants and entering the food chain can cause different disease for humans and other organisms. There are different methods for refining contaminated soils. One low-cost method for refining contaminated soils is using plants (Phytoremediation) that has lower cost, compatible with nature and require fewer facilities than other methods of refining. Plants are able to influence the availability of heavy metals in the rhizosphere due to root exudates and other mechanisms resulting in a change in their phytoextraction capability.

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Lead Bioremediation potential of multimetal resistant bacteria

Industrial wastewater pollution is one of the most controversial problems especially in countries like Pakistan. Human activities and the release of industrial wastes have resulted in the accumulation of metals in the environment. Noxious chemicals like heavy metals include cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, etc., pollute the soils, ground water, sediments and surface waters are present in soluble form. Bioremediation technology uses microorganisms to reduce, eliminate, and transform contaminants present in soils, sediments, water, and air. One of the processes of bioremediation is “biosorption”, by which metal ions are adsorbed from polluted site by microorganisms.Analysis is done by the technique of atomic absorption spectrophotometery.

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Heavy metals and phytoremediation via Eucalypt plantation

Phytoremediation is clean-up of pollutants with plant. Phytoremediation is most effective on sites containing a low level and widely dispersed contaminant over a large area in the upper surface of the soil. Phytoremediation can work with site restoration with minimum site disruption. Additionally, plant biomass can be harvested to remove contaminants from the site and trees without disturbing the site. To enhance phytoremediation as a viable strategy, fast growing plants with high metal uptake ability and rapid biomass gain are needed. Eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E.microtheca, E.occidentalis, E.sargentii, E.Largiflorens) can be use effectively to stabilize a polluted soil or to extract metals from mild polluted soils using Phytoremediation method. Goal was Finding the most efficient of 5 Eucalyptus species to hyperaccumulation of heavy metals (H.M) including Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Arsenic (As) and Nickel (Ni) in planting areas by Eucalyptus species in Golestan Province in north of Iran as non-Industrial area and Industrial areas of Khozestan province as polluted area in southern part of Iran.

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Environmental Bio remediation of Heavy Metals

ShorttitlThe aim of this study was to assess all conditions for heavy metals sources in the surrounding environment , Egypt in particular and factors leading to that pollution due to the highly developed industrial activities .I n that area .Cu, Cr, Cd, ,Zn ,and U were used as reference examples in ground water , drinking water supplies and in soil samples. Both Natural and synthetic sources and toxicity of commonly encountered heavy metals were discussed . The heavy metals bio remediation scales will be used to establish the environmental guide levels for various heavy metals. Reviewed the different ways to try to control different pollutants as oil spills ,and radioactive isotopes . Proposed future prospect to the heavy metals and harmful elements removal by applying biosorption, phytoremediation, mycoremediation , phytoextraxtion and hyperaccumulator; bioremediation scales ,factors affecting it , Rhizofiltration, Phytostabilization and other known traditional methods referring to Burullus lake.Sadat city towards a valuable environment and future consideration provision to reduce the problem.

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BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL HEAVY METALS

Heavy metal pollution removal is now felt more than ever because of currently severe water crises world- wide. As a solution the biosorption technology has recently emerged as economically and practically viable option to conventional technologies by utilizing any natural source of biomass as a biosorbent for the depollution of industrial heavy metal. Of recent, the use of macromycetes (Basidiomycetes) for depollution of heavy metal ions has been gaining advantage due to requirement of minimum care and maintenance during culturing. The present investigation is, therefore designed to evaluate competence of Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune and Ganoderma lucidum as a biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals ions from aqueous solution. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, biomass dose, equilibrium time, stirring intensity, temperature and initial metal ion concentrations. Spent biosorbent was regenerated to find out the adsorption potential on reuse. Besides, the fungi were applied to real electroplating and tannery effluents to validate their effectiveness in true processing

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Heavy Metals Removal From Wastewater By Biosorption

It is a well known fact that presence of heavy metal ions in wastewater reduces the performance of activated sludge systems. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater before biological treatment is a viable approach used to improve the biological treatment performance. One of the methods used for removal of heavy metals from wastewater is biosorption. Mathematical model was developed to describe the heavy metal ions inhibition in an activated sludge unit. Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate heavy metal ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions.

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Bioremediation of Heavy Metals

Field level studies were conducted for the bioremediation of heavy metals (Cadmium and Lead) through AMF inoculated Sorghum plants. Sorghum plants were grown in the pots and inoculated with AMF (Glomus). Various concentrations of Cd and Pb (0.1%, 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 5.0%) were added to the pots and plant growth parameters (physical as well as biochemical) were analyzed. Extensive literature was studied to understand the mechanism related to the absorbtion of heavy metals by AMF, microbes and plants. It was found that even at highest concentration (5%)of Cd and Pb, sorghum plants are able to survive and absorb the considerable amount of heavy metals from the soil.

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Biosorption of Electroplating Heavy Metals by Fungi

Biosorption is being demonstrated as a useful alternative to conventional systems for the removal of toxic metals from industrial effluents. Metal affinity to the biomass can be increase by pre treating the biomass with different chemicals. Current study was deigned to assess the Ni(II) and CCu(II) removal capability of two microfungi viz. Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus arrhizus. Biomass of both fungal species was pretreated with alkalies, acids and detergents. For the successful application of biosorption crucial parameters like influence of initial metal ion concentration and desorption/reutilization were also performed. To check the practical potential of adsorbents, metal uptake capability of test fungal biosorbents was assessed with real industrial effluents. This book is useful for those who are working on treatment of wastewater using fungal biomass.

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Biosorption-An Eco Friendly Technique for the Removal of Heavy Metals

This monograph is based on research work and several literature. Heavy metals, especially Nickel and Chromium can have serious effects on human and animal health and they are non-renewable resources. Therefore effective recovery of heavy metals is as important as removal of them from waste streams.The conventional methods may be ineffective or expensive, especially when the heavy metal ions are in solutions containing in the order of 1-100 mg dissolved heavy metal ions/L.The Calotropis procera and Embalica officinalis, plant biomasses were investigated as a new biosorbent for the removal of Ni(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution with 90% and 100% sorption efficiency of Ni(II) and Cr(VI) from 50 mg/L solution. This study provides information on the removal of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) by using two different low cost adsorbents. Different parameters, adsorption isotherm and elution test, co-ions effects etc were studied.

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Biosorption of Chromium (VI) using Plant Biomass

Anthropogenic activities are the main causes that affect the natural geological distribution of heavy metals through pollution of the environment.Bioremediation for removal of toxic heavy metals from waste water is gaining much importance.In recent years, in the field of wastewater bioremediation, the search for low-cost biosorbents having high metal-binding capacities has intensified. The objective of this study was to focus on the elimination of chromium (a toxic heavy metal) from water by applying biosorption technique using Lallementia royleana seeds and Psyllium husk. According to the available literature, these plant materials have not been used as biosorbants before. These both are agricultural by-products and are abundantly cultivated throughout Asia. Their biosorption capacity was also compared to Aspergillus niger, which is a well known biosorbant. The optimum conditions for biosorption were determined as a function of biosorbent concentration, pH, temperature and contact time.

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Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals from Wastewater and Polluted Soil

In most developing countries, there is dependence on wastewater for vegetable production due to limited access to clean water. Heavy metal pollution of aqueous streams, soil and sediments is a major environmental problem globally. Methods such as ion exchange, chemical and microbiological precipitation that have been developed to remove heavy metals have limited access due to the cost involved, labour and energy. This book, therefore unveils the phytoremediation potentials of Lactuca sativa, Brassica oleracea L. var capitata and Daucus carrota var sativa irrigated with wastewater from Nagodi mining site in Ghana. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil and the wastewater was also analysed. Differential accumulation and translocation of copper, lead, iron, manganese, cadmium and zinc in the root, stem and leaf of the vegetables were investigated during the experiment. This book should serve as a guide to environmentalists, scientists and all who may be interested in using plants for clean-up of toxic metals and also helps to understand the mechanisms plants uses to remove heavy metals from our environment in order to guarantee a greener and cleaner planet for all of us.

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Phytoremediation ability of tree species for heavy metals absorption

Phytoextraction exploits the ability of plant roots to remove unwanted contaminants from their environment. Unlike organic compounds, metals do not disappear, and they must be removed for cleaning. Most of the conventional remedial technologies are expensive and inhibit the soil fertility; this subsequently causes negative impacts on the ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high cadmium and lead soil concentrations on selected physiological parameters of three tree species as: Robinia pseudoacacia, Cupressus arizonica and Fraxinus rotundifolia var.rotundifolia.

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Bioremediation of Solid and Liquid Wastes

Basically it is a PhD Thesis.In this study, the samples were collected from selected 40 sites of Uttarakhand (84 samples).The physico-chemical and microbial analysis was done according to standard method. The pH, temperature, colour,Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, TH, TDS, chloride, fluoride, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and heavy metal concentration was measured by standard methods. The results of physico-chemical analysis showed that waste water had more concentration than acceptable limit fixed by ICMR, WHO, EPA and APHA and river water had some parameters in limits and another have beyond the limit. The heavy metals viz. Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, As, Ni, Pb, Cd were determined in both solid and liquid wastes. The eight samples were selected, having maximum heavy metal concentrations, for the bioremediation study. The microbes were isolated from selected samples and characterized by microscopic,morphological and biochemical methods. Seven microbes were selected and they were allowed to grow in heavy metal ammended media for acclimatization, most potent were used for biosorption study.The gram +ve bacteria were found potential Bioadsorbant.

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Uptake and Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Waste Stream

Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. Waste crab shell and certain metal-binding algae are found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments and dynamic continuous-flow sorption and desorption are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance for industrial effluents. New methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. This book, therefore aimed for those who are involved in waste water treatment like researchers and industry personals, design engineers, consultancy organization, research institution and also university students pursuing higher degrees in Environmental biotechnology,

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Biosorption of Chromium by baker's yeast

Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have unfavorable effects on the environment. Conventional treatment technologies for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution are not economical and generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption of heavy metals is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. The study was aimed to quantify the Cr (VI) sorption ability of Baker’s yeast at the best operating conditions. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cr (VI) ions was found to be 3.0. The percentage removal Cr (VI) ions from solution was decreased with increase in concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L whereas, uptake capacity was increased with increase in concentration of Cr (VI) ions from 10 to 50 mg/L. The percentage removal and biosorption capacity increased with increases time from 3-24 hrs then become constant. Uptake capacity “q” (mg/g) of Cr (VI) ions decreased with increased biosorbent dose. Higher value of correlation coefficient (R2 < 0.90) indicates that adsorption data are best fitted in both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms model.

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