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Financing of Protected Areas

Conservation of biological diversity is one of themain elements of sustainable development, given thatbiodiversity is the basis of life on earth. Thecurrent and potential role of protected areas inbiodiversity conservation cannot be overemphasized.In addition to biodiversity conservation, protectedareas provide goods and services that are categorizedinto direct benefits, indirect benefits andintermediated use services (such as tourism,recreation and ecosystem services). However,biodiversity is disappearing at alarming rate andthis is a threat to species’ survival on the planet.However, protected areas in general are notadequately funded regardless of their uniquecontribution to nature conservation. As a resultthere is an urgent and serious need for thedevelopment of innovative, diverse and sustainablefinancing mechanisms for protected areas in manycountries of the world.

4631 рублей

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Contribution Of Protected Areas Towards Peoples’ Livelihoods In Uganda

This study aimed at assessing the contribution of protected areas to the livelihoods of adjacent communities using Queen Elizabeth National Park as a case study. Specific objectives of the study were to examine the effect of crop raiding on food security; assessing the contribution of the park to household incomes and examining the relationship between protected areas and social capital formation.

3393 рублей

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Financing Options for Increasing Energy Services to rural areas

Limited access to adequate, affordable and reliable energy remains a severe constraint on development. Solar energy offers enormous potential as source of energy for remote areas. This paper identifies and discusses the major barriers to accessing energy services. It examines the financing options for increasing accessibility of energy services to low-income communities in Uganda with special emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) solar home systems. The study indicates that access to renewable energy depends on a variety of socio- economic- technical-institutional factors. Lack of appropriate financing mechanisms for end users wishing to develop businesses around renewable energy remains a key barrier (Derrick, 1998). How can Uganda provide energy services to over 20 million people who currently have no access to the grid? To increase access of energy services to remote households, this paper argues for a decentralized model of electricity distribution through community financing cooperatives. It recommends the community cooperative model as a suitable and innovative option to finance the supply of PV solar systems in remote areas at an affordable, convenient and long-term basis.

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Ecotourism Development in Protected Areas

Ecotourism is new and rapidly growing niche market in tourism industry. It has implications on environment, economy and culture. For this reason, protected areas are increasingly viewed as critical component of life support system and expected to do more ecologically, economically and socially than they ever have before. With the boom in World tourism market it is vital to assess protected areas in terms of their potential and relevance for ecotourism development to take part of the mixed blessing of the segment. It is also imperative to weigh possible future challenges of ecotourism development in these protected areas. Therefore, this book provides intrinsic view of ecotourism development in protected areas from environmental,economical and socio-cultural perspectives.

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Protected Areas Management and Environmental Sociology in Iran

This book investigates on wildlife situations and conditions, biodiversity conservation and management, human-dimensions of conservation, human-environment interactions, socio-environmental interface, intricate system of human and environmental condition, participatory conservation, ecotourism management, and rural development in Iran, by highlighting also local and international standards and experiences. Therefore, this book is valuable for all researchers in the mentioned topics.

8198 рублей

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Protected areas in tropical rainforests

The conservation of tropical rainforests is a key factor in mitigating climate change as century old trees and especially peat lands store large quantities of carbon. Furthermore, tropical rainforests play an important role in the conservation of the biodiversity on Earth since they provide habitat for approximately 50% of all species. Protected areas in tropical rainforests in the Amazon, in the Congo basin as well as in Indonesia are threatened by total deforestation, forest degradation and climate change. In the Congo basin the logging industry is the most threatening pressure; in the Amazon it is cattle ranching and in Indonesia it is the palm oil industry as well as legal and illegal logging. This study focuses on the conditions of protected areas in tropical rainforest in Borneo. Based on a literature review it examines whether protected areas can really stop deforestation and degradation within its boundaries. Furthermore, it is examined whether protected areas can effectively help conserving biodiversity when climate change continues.

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strategic environmental planning and protected areas in Cameroon

This book focuses on “protected areas” as delimited by the Cameroon government for specific objectives of conservation and sustainable development of natural resources. It makes us to understand that protected areas are gazetted into different categories, some of declared ignoring traditionally use by local communities to meet their daily needs. Hence, the genesis of hostility (bush fires, poaching, anthropogenic pressures)resulting to human- wildlife conflicts. It futher suggest better ways of management of protected areas and the advantages that such management will offer. The book points out that conserving biodiversity in Cameroon is guided by laws of 1994 and 1996.The book clearly gives the shortcomings observed in the guidelines and suggested ways of management in a decentralised system.This book will be an interesting tool to an ordinary reader since it is very informative and an invaluable tool to students of forestry and wildlife management pursuing higher education training.

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Co-management of Protected Areas

The lost of biological diversity, especially in tropical countries is a major global challenge of our time. The establishment of protected areas remains to be the most important policy instrument to deal with this challenge. However, the conventional state-based approaches to manage protected areas have often failed to balance the goal of nature conservation with the goal of improving the livelihood of the local communities. A promising approach to deal with this problem is the concept of co-management (collaborative management), which envisages a joint management of protected areas by both state agencies and local communities. An interesting work on “Community Agreement on Nature Conservation in the Lore Lindu Nationbal Park, Indonesia have a considerable potential for dealing with conflicting interests of diverse stakeholders concerning protected area management. As such agreements are locally negotiated; they can take the specific ecological, socio-economic and cultural conditions at the local level into account. Co-management makes a major contribution to the analytical literature on natural resource and anyone else who may be considering a negotiation for marketing efforts.

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Economic Impacts of Ecotourism in Protected Areas

Ample of evidences are drawn out to support the argument “Conservation and development" that has to go hand in hand to make it more sustainable. Particularly to say, conservation with meaningful people participation can only ensure better achievement in the long-term goal of development without deteriorating the natural resources. This approach is apparently justified by featured contribution of Nepalese protected areas in the local, regional and national conservation cum development campaigns. Ecotourism in Protected area is an up-to-the minute program in most Protected Areas of Nepal and can potentially open up new vistas when it comes to the economic harmony for all stakeholders. Spatial occurrence of tourism products and socioeconomic context of local people tends to have vital role in the equal distribution of benefits among local people. Much more efforts should be concentrated to keep it up viable in long run along with periodic review of conservation policies and monitoring of nature-society nexus should be together Which could contribute in the rational decision making process in every hierarchies.

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Dealing with Volcanic Terrains: Conflict Management at Protected Areas

Many protected areas struggle with balancing their goals: conservation of fragile nature and promoting recreation. Conflicts arise, which challenge the management to look behind the surface of conflict issues and deal with the subjective forces involved. This book takes a human perspective of stakeholders on issues related to protected area management and presents a communicative model to manage conflicts and create consensus. The literature research explores techniques in conflict management and a survey is used to evaluate the opinion of stakeholder concerning the themes of conflict, communication, and consensus. The survey focuses on the Daisetsuzan National Park in Japan and the Vatnajokull National Park in Iceland with the aim to formulate a suited conflict management approach that can be used in protected area management in general. The findings suggest that despite difference in cultures a communicative approach to conflicts in protected area management may support forming consensus regarding the issues at stake. The findings help managers of protected areas as well as anyone interested to gain better understanding of conflict issues and the valuable tools at their disposal.

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Community Participation on Conservation and Protected Areas of Nepal

The world is facing problems on conservation of the natural resources,on pollution aspects, natural hazards,conflicts between people and conservations areas etc. To find out the status of conflict between national park and buffer zone people,this research was conducted on Narayani Buffer zone Village Development Committee, Nawalparasi District, Nepal. The main thrust of the study is to find socioeconomic status of the people, community forest ecology, equity in user groups, land use change and livelihood of the people. Poor socioeconomic status of people and other associated problem with crop damage, livestock depredation and human harassment causes the Park people conflict in this area. Mere compensations provided by buffer zone management is not enough and opportunities are insignificant for the local peoples. Moreover, disappearance of grass land, conversion of forest in to agriculture land reveals that the Park resources suffer from both anthropogenic and natural factors. So this book gives an idea about the park people conflict at national parks and how the national park resources are being suffering from human activities.

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Local Communities and Wildlife Interactions

Many protected areas in Kenya are inextricably linked to their adjacent areas and dispersal areas by the movement of migratory wildlife species. Despite of this ecological importance the functional relationships between protected areas and their adjacent areas and dispersal areas were not taken into consideration during the establishment of these protected areas. This is well demonstrated in the Nairobi National park ecosystem through the Kitengela wildlife dispersal area. In most instances,socio-economic activities undertaken in areas adjacent to protected areas have great implications on sustainable biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods.This book offers great lessons on integrated wildlife ecosystem conservation and management.It also provides basis for ecosystem monitoring and evaluation by use of vegetation trends. The conclusions and recommendations of this book will be useful to relevant stakeholders in sustainable wildlife ecosystem management to include; policy makers and implementers, wildlife conservation organizations, academicians, researchers, Civil Society Organizations, adjacent communities to protected areas and in all parts of the world.

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Budgeting and Financing of Academic Libraries

Inadequate budgets and financing of academic libraries have brought enormous inconveniences in the provision of library and information services. Areas that have suffered most due to inadequate budgets include the acquisition of library materials and subscription of serials. The University of Malawi Libraries (UML) have not been spared either. Just as many academic libraries, UML are being requested to downsize, economize, streamline while at the same time are expected to provide quality and valuable services. While fundraising and other sources of generating income have been emphasized, careful attention to budgeting and bargaining stand out as appropriate mechanisms in budgeting and financing academic libraries.

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Farmland Trees Governance Outside protected Areas in Eastern Usambara

The east Usambara Mountains are part of the Eastern Arc Mountain which are considered one of the global hotspots. The mountains are almost entirely within Muheza district in Tanga region, apart from smaller parts in the west that falls in Korogwe District. The mountains rises to an altitude of 1'506. The population is 101,767.Outside reserve forest has been cleared for farmland. The clearance has led to forest encroachment as needs for forest resources rises.To reduce forest encroachment farmland tree management program was introduced in the area so as to minimize pressure to the reserved forest resources. villages has been encouraged to plant trees in their farms and use the tree for household trees resources needs. However the use of trees in farms are not left open to free access management and use, there are set rules and regulations that govern the management and use of farmland trees for improved forest cover and biodiversity conservation in surrounding protected surrounded by villages in east Usambara Mountains. Therefor this book asses the policies and institutions governing farmland trees in village outside protected areas.

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Financing Of Sericulture Industry

Sericulture has been developed in India as an agro-based cottage industry with considerable employment potential. A very significant character of this industry is its ability to provide gainful occupation for a sizeable section of rural mass without dislodging them from their homesteads, especially in the drought-prone areas. There is a considerable literature on sericulture industry. But, more knowledge is available in the form of published articles and books as regards the scientific aspects of sericulture/silk industry. The studies on the economics and financing of sericulture industry are scanty and did not receive adequate attention. Hence, more studies need to be undertaken. The present study is a modest attempt and covered the economic and financial aspects of sericulture industry, especially in the drought-prone areas. The major chunk of the work involves field investigations. Schedules were constructed and pre-tested for collecting primary data from the sample respondents (Sericulturists/farmers). Secondary data was also collected from different sources. Both the data were properly processed and analysed to arrive at meaningful inferences.

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Environmental and social impacts of ecotourism around protected areas

This research was conducted to generate deeper understanding of how ecotourism development around protected areas influences community livelihood strategies and conservation. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the collection and analysis of data. Questionnaires were administered to both households in three selected parishes and 7 organisations that work in association with BINP. Group discussions were conducted among the communities who run the campground and community walk. Key informants were interviewed to gather in-depth information that could not be accessed through interviews and group discussions. The information gathered reveals that ecotourism has had both positive and negative impacts on both community livelihood strategies and conservation of BINP. The change in perceptions had been influenced by a combination of ecotourism opportunities, revenue sharing initiatives and promotion of income generating projects around the national park.

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Funding models for financing of water infrastructure in South Africa

The aim of water resources infrastructure development in South Africa is to ensure water security and availability within specific water management areas. It must be emphasized that South Africa is a water-scarce country, subject to droughts and periodic floods. Future water availability (surface water) will be impacted by climate change and variability. Thus, water demand management and conservation (water use efficiency) must be an integral part of infrastructure planning and development. The research is presented in terms of the various performance areas, i.e.: • Relationships between infrastructure and development • Water infrastructure development and management • Infrastructure condition and capacity, i.e. operation and maintenance. Water is a strategic natural resource and a reliable and affordable water supply underpins all economic and social development. The supply of water is viewed as a critical input into the economy and for the creation of opportunities for empowerment. Attempts are made to describe, explain, understand, predict (foresee), critique and/or analyse new and existing information on the funding (financing and economics) of water infrastructure projects.

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SME Financing And Its Impact On Economic Development (2000-2012)

The purpose of the study was to explore the realities regarding low growth of the most important sector of the economy. During the study we remain focused on the three major areas including: ? SME sector and its importance ? Financing to SMEs ? How helpful financing can be for the development of economy. A detailed working is done in this area in order to analyze small and medium sized enterprises value to the economy in terms of GDP share, employment generation, growth to the overall economy, percentage of SME financing in total portfolio of financial industry, issues in financing to SMEs, possible other factors affecting growth, initiatives taken up by governing and regulatory bodies to increase financing and lastly how financing to this sector can set the base for economic development.

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The aim of water resources infrastructure development in South Africa is to ensure water security and availability within specific water management areas. It must be emphasized that South Africa is a water-scarce country, subject to droughts and periodic floods. Future water availability (surface water) will be impacted by climate change and variability. Thus, water demand management and conservation (water use efficiency) must be an integral part of infrastructure planning and development. The research is presented in terms of the various performance areas, i.e.: • Relationships between infrastructure and development • Water infrastructure development and management • Infrastructure condition and capacity, i.e. operation and maintenance. Water is a strategic natural resource and a reliable and affordable water supply underpins all economic and social development. The supply of water is viewed as a critical input into the economy and for the creation of opportunities for empowerment. Attempts are made to describe, explain, understand, predict (foresee), critique and/or analyse new and existing information on the funding (financing and economics) of water infrastructure projects.

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